I will leave it to someone else to ask why the jet isn't bolted to the pump like it is designed to be.
You say the water is coming to the top of the well as well as in the 1/2" pipe. Maybe there is hope without the foot valve.
First, the 1/2" pipe is too small to work as a suction pipe. With that pipe in the well you might be able to use the casing as a suction pipe but you won't have a strainer.
You will need a check valve somewhere. Do you have one in the discharge pipe? The pressure switch must be between the check valve and the tank. The check valve could also be on the suction side of the pump.
Connect the suction of the pump to the top of the well pipe with a sealed fitting, using a pipe at least as large as the inlet to the jet.
Connect a wet shop vacuum to that ball valve outlet that you have on the discharge of the pump. You might have to use tape or even a rag stuffed around the pipe and into the vacuum hose. Now, with the valve open, turn on the vacuum cleaner. If it has enough power to suck water up to the pump, then you are in business. If it doesn't, you may need to lower the pump to the top of the well pipe.
If you have access to a self-priming pump of some kind you could use that to prime the pump by connecting the suction to that valve on your outlet. If you have access to a hand operated pitcher pump that would also work.
After the vacuum cleaner has had a few seconds to lift the water, turn on the pump. If the water has risen to the pump, it will be pumping. Close the valve before the pressure blows up your vacuum cleaner.
If the water is rising naturally to the top of the well pipe, and you have no leaks, the check valve on the discharge should hold prime.
You will eventually want to get that junk cleared out of the well and put in a proper drop pipe.