Why not convert to 220V?
A 2 wire does the start/run in the pump. A 3 wire does the start/run in the control box.
You should most likely bond the ground to the casing.
HP and GPM depends on your planned water use and on what your well can produce as well as the size of your pressure tank. Given the static water level, I think 1/2 HP, 10 GPM is a minimum.
The wire should be taped to the downpipe as you mentioned.
The pipe should bear the weight, not a rope.