I appreciate the need to do a quick "just for now" job, but that really isn't going to be satisfactory for long. Given the facts that you have no plumbing experience, and the proper repairs will require some expertise, your best course of action is to call a plumber. You need a real flange that is properly connected to the drain and anchored securely to the sub floor, and the flooring must be in good condition. This is a pretty good undertaking even for a fairly experienced DIY. All toilets with the exception for a few Toto models using a different connection method, install the same way, so repairing the flange situation now will not impact replacing the toilet later with a new one.