When using a hand threader, you do pump the handle a few times and then back it up to break the "chips". You essentially keep a somewhat continuous flow of "thread cutting oil", NOT motor oil, WD-40, etc. If the pipe was cut with a proper cutter, it does NOT have a ridge on the end. Cutting it any other way, can leave a ridge which will interfere with starting the threader until it is filed off. The threading TOOL can be bought anywhere. The threading die heads depend on the quality of the die's material as to how good the threads are and how long they last. Brittle ones can be destroyed after just one or two threads. They CANNOT be sharpened without affecting the quality of the thread produced. Plumber's dies produce tapered threads. Electrician dies produce straight threads, so you do not want to mix the two types. The dies ARE replaceable in a die head, but they have to be installed in a SPECIFIC order. Each of the four slots requires a specific die from the set of four.