Well, you should be able to reinstall the fuses without worry.
Are you sure the fuse you replaced was any good? Some are fairly easy to tell, some are not. The only real way to tell is with a meter, or to substitute one that you know worked in one circuit into the one that didn't work. Putting a bigger fuse in than the wires are designed for could cause overheating, but not replacing with the proper size.
While fuses work fine, they are a pain when one gets blown as opposed to a more modern circuit breaker, which will work many times before needing to be replaced...just flip it all the way off, then back on, and you've restored power once the problem has been resolved.
On an older house, the wiring and insulation can become brittle. So, even some slight movement could cause the insulation to break off. So if that is the case, a new fuse might trip as soon as you install it if there is now a short. You'll need to do a careful visual inspection and you may see the problem...otherwise, it's time for an electrician. the most likely place is the light fixture you were replacing the bulb in. Take the fuse out while poking around!