We have a low flow well, which is labeled on the well cap as being 1 GPM. The well is 300 feet deep, with an apparent casing depth of 20 feet and a water depth of 280 feet (also ascertained from scribbling on the underside of the well cap). Coinciding roughly with the birth of our first child about a year ago (and assuming it has to do with more water consumption, due to more clothes washing, etc.) we periodically would lose all water pressure. Sometimes, we could force the pressure switch to cause the pump to run and bring the water pressure back up, other times, its a matter of sitting and waiting.
We do have some sediment, which has only been really noticeable by the fact that the cold water connection to our washing machine periodically gets clogged with tiny bits of rocks. And our water is relatively hard.
We bought the house close to four years ago, so all well and pump related items came with it. On a whim, I replaced the most accessible and cheapest component today, the pressure switch. But that didn't seem to make much difference (although the opening into the diaphragm inside the old one did have some accumulation of grime growing on it). While the water level was down, I popped the cover on the well, and I could hear the pump running away in the depths, even though I was well below the low pressure cutoff (which is 30#'s).
The tank is a WellXtrol WX-202 (20 gallons). There are no filters or anything like that inline (hence the hard water and sediment). The likely age of the pump and the tank, etc. is 1978, which is when the house was built.
So my questions are: is there any other simple troubleshooting I can do? Ultimately, I'm probably going to have to call someone to come take a look at it, and its likely going to mean a new pump, or drill a new well (as I'd like to boost that flow rate just a tad anyway). But if there's something simple I can check or do, perhaps none of that will be necessary.
You said the pump was running when the cutoff pressure was below 30, that should be the cut on. So if the pump was running and not pumping water, it means the pump is not in water.
When they get into the well, hopefully they can lower the pump some more or clean the screen, if the well is a screened well.