There are filters available that can cope with about anything but hardness it seems. Non salt "softeners" (very touchy subject) do not soften water. If you want really nice water (from what you've posted) you'd need a minimum of a carbon filter and a softener.
The things you need to know even just to start thinking about it are: Hardness, Iron, ph, nitrates/nitrites (you already know you have chlorine). Then you can contact someone like Gary Slusser or Budget Water and start figureing out what you really need.