30A does NOT mean "two 15a breakers". Also, there are no 10a breakers. If you find one it is an oddball and most likely for industrial use.
Let's get the basic info first. What conductors are in this cable? If it is black, white, red and GROUND (bare or green), then you can effectively install a sub-panel.
If it is just black, white and ground then you can install a sub-panel, but it would be a bit hacky as you would be limited to a 120v panel.