Carbon filters are for dealing with chlorine, so you can set those aside altogether.
I have two "whole house" filter housings, with a 10-inch, 5-micron element in the first, and with a 20-inch, .5-micron element in the second. Depending upon what kinds of deals I can find online, some of my elements are wound and some are poly. But, the issue here is more about microns than about "plastic or paper" or whatever.
If I had your situation, I would put something like a 20-inch, 10-micron filter right after your tank, and I might add a 20-inch, 5-micron filter just ahead of the water heater. Then, I would use whatever I was willing to change regularly for drinking and ice-cube water in the kitchen and just get used to whatever comes out anywhere else. I do not know much of anything about even my own well, but it sounds to me like yours is the best you are going to get there where you are.