If the rain is what caused your water to turn color, I would be concerned about the seal around the well or rain water getting into the aquifer somewhere else. Gary or someone else here can help you with filters and treatment but, you need to find out how the rain affected your water.
Rain causing your water to turn color is not a good thing. If rain water is getting into your well, it is washing lots of dirty stuff from the ground into your well.
Rain water can get into your well if the top is open, or if the well is not cemented properly. Rain can also enter from an unsealed abandoned well in the area or something similar. Find out how and where the rain is getting into your well and plug the leak, before worrying about more filters.
Oh and run enough hoses to keep the pump from cycling off while you are purging the well.