Reverse bowl design (Flachspüler)
In Germany, Netherlands, and some regions of Poland, the bowl is designed to hold the fecal matter out of the water prior to flushing by means of a receiver shelf, whereas most U.S. or U.K. designs immediately allow it to plunge into standing water. This reverse design prevents the occurrence of any splash-up which commonly happens when fecal matter plunges into the standing water in the standard designs (although substantial deposits may cause splash-up problems of their own). The disadvantage is that it also increases the associated odor and may require the use of a brush to remove bits of feces that may have "skid-marked" on the shelf. Similar designs are found in some early toilets in the U.S., one particular brand being labeled the "Grand Niagara", as the flushing of the shelf creates a waterfall effect into the drain chamber.